Comptes Rendus
Predicting the transition from internal to external oxidation of alloys using an extended Wagner model
Comptes Rendus. Mécanique, Volume 341 (2013) no. 3, pp. 314-322.

Leblond [Oxid. Metals 75 (2011) 93–101] recently estimated the conditions governing the transition from internal to external oxidation of alloys using a variant of Wagnerʼs [Z. Elektrochem. 63 (1959) 772–782] model incorporating the possible role of oxides as diffusion barriers, through a heuristic dependence of the diffusion coefficient of oxygen upon their local volume fraction. But the crudeness of the formula adopted made the prediction of the onset of external oxidation only qualitative. A more accurate formula is derived here by using a thermal analogy and finite element computations of the reduction of the conductivity generated by nonconducting, more or less flat obstacles. The extended Wagner model incorporating this formula leads to a prediction of the “critical” local fraction of oxides corresponding to the transition from internal to external oxidation, depending on the “aspect ratio” of the oxides. The predicted value is in acceptable agreement with that measured by Rapp [Acta Metall. 9 (1961) 730–741] for the Ag–In system, for a reasonable postulated value of this aspect ratio.

Leblond [Oxid. Metals 75 (2011) 93–101] a récemment estimé les conditions régissant la transition entre oxydation interne et externe des alliages en utilisant une variante du modèle de Wagner [Z. Elektrochem. 63 (1959) 772–782] incorporant le rôle possible dʼobstacles à la diffusion joué par les oxydes, via une dépendance heuristique du coefficient de diffusion de lʼoxygène vis-à-vis de leur fraction volumique locale. Mais, du fait de la grossièreté de la formule adoptée, la prédiction de lʼoccurrence de lʼoxydation externe ne pouvait être que qualitative. On obtient ici une formule plus précise grâce à une analogie thermique et des calculs par éléments finis de la réduction de la conductivité générée par des obstacles non conducteurs plus ou moins aplatis. Le modèle de Wagner étendu incorporant cette formule conduit à une prédiction analytique de la fraction « critique » locale dʼoxydes correspondant à la transition entre oxydation interne et externe, dépendant du « facteur de forme » des oxydes. La valeur prédite est en accord acceptable avec celle mesurée par Rapp [Acta Metall. 9 (1961) 730–741] pour le système Ag–In, pour une valeur postulée raisonnable de ce facteur de forme.

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Accepted:
Published online:
DOI: 10.1016/j.crme.2013.01.003
Keywords: Extended Wagner model, Diffusion barriers, Internal oxidation, External oxidation
Mot clés : Modèle de Wagner étendu, Obstacles à la diffusion, Oxydation interne, Oxydation externe

Jean-Baptiste Leblond 1; Moïse Pignol 2; Didier Huin 3

1 UPMC Université Paris-6 and CNRS, UMR 7190, Institut Jean-Le-Rond-dʼAlembert, 4, place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05, France
2 ESI Group, Immeuble Le Récamier, 70, rue Robert, 69458 Lyon cedex 06, France
3 ArcelorMittal Global R&D, Maizières Automotive Products, 57283 Maizières-lès-Metz cedex, France
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Jean-Baptiste Leblond; Moïse Pignol; Didier Huin. Predicting the transition from internal to external oxidation of alloys using an extended Wagner model. Comptes Rendus. Mécanique, Volume 341 (2013) no. 3, pp. 314-322. doi : 10.1016/j.crme.2013.01.003. https://comptes-rendus.academie-sciences.fr/mecanique/articles/10.1016/j.crme.2013.01.003/

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