Comptes Rendus
Correction de la dispersion atmosphérique dans l’imagerie par les grands télescopes et les interféromètres astronomiques
[Correction of atmospheric dispersion in imaging by large telescopes and stellar interferometers]
Comptes Rendus. Physique, Volume 23 (2022) no. S1, pp. 345-364.

The very large telescopes and the various optical interferometers provide access to unparalleled angular resolutions and provide scientific data of primary importance, but at the price of instrumental constraints that require complex equipment. The correction of the atmospheric dispersion (i.e. of the variation of the air refractive index versus the wavelength) is one of these constraints. This dispersion comes in three forms: the angular dispersion (the image of a star is spread out into a small spectrum); the dispersion in optical path difference in an interferometer (for the correction of which we propose a new technique to our knowledge); and the lateral dispersion that is related to the apparition of colours in the scintillation. The question of stabilizing the optical path difference in optical interferometers is also raised.

Les très grands télescopes et les divers interféromètres optiques permettent d’accéder à des résolutions angulaires inégalées et fournissent des données scientifiques de première importance, mais au prix de contraintes instrumentales qui demandent des équipements complexes. La correction de la dispersion atmosphérique (i.e. de la variation d’indice de l’air avec la longueur d’onde) est l’une d’elles. Cette dispersion se présente sous trois formes  : la dispersion angulaire (l’image d’une étoile est étalée en un petit spectre) ; la dispersion longitudinale (i.e. en différence de marche entre voies d’un interféromètre, pour la correction de laquelle nous proposons une technique nouvelle à notre connaissance) ; enfin la dispersion latérale, liée à la coloration de la scintillation. On évoque aussi la question de la stabilisation de la différence de marche dans les interféromètres optiques.

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DOI: 10.5802/crphys.112
Mot clés : Haute résolution angulaire, Interféromètres astronomiques, Interférométrie des tavelures, Dispersion, Prismes de Risley, Interféromètre achromatique de Sinton
Keywords: High angular resolution, Stellar interferometers, Speckle interferometry, Dispersion, Risley prisms, Sinton’s achromatic interferometer

Laurent Koechlin 1; Luc Dettwiller 2

1 Astronome émérite, Institut de recherches en astrophysique et planétologie, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, France
2 Université Jean Monnet Saint-Etienne, CNRS, Institut d Optique Graduate School, Laboratoire Hubert Curien UMR 5516, F-42023, SAINT-ETIENNE, France
License: CC-BY 4.0
Copyrights: The authors retain unrestricted copyrights and publishing rights
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Laurent Koechlin; Luc Dettwiller. Correction de la dispersion atmosphérique dans l’imagerie par les grands télescopes et les interféromètres astronomiques. Comptes Rendus. Physique, Volume 23 (2022) no. S1, pp. 345-364. doi : 10.5802/crphys.112. https://comptes-rendus.academie-sciences.fr/physique/articles/10.5802/crphys.112/

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