Comptes Rendus
Optique adaptative  : correction des effets de la turbulence atmosphérique sur les images astronomiques
[Adaptive optics: correcting atmospheric turbulence effects on astronomical images]
Comptes Rendus. Physique, Volume 23 (2022) no. S1, pp. 293-344.

Today, adaptive optics (AO) is installed on all very large astronomical telescopes. It allows to overcome the limitation in angular resolution imposed on large ground-based telescopes by the atmospheric turbulence perturbations. This review paper presents the state of the art of the field for astronomical applications. It gives the principles of AO and describes its main components which are the deformable mirrors, the wavefront sensors and the control algorithms. The paper also presents the main recent achievements and ongoing projects. First, for the direct imaging of extra-solar planets by extreme AO and coronography, taking as example the SPHERE instrument. Then to solve the problem of the very limited sky coverage by using laser guide star and to extend the AO correction beyond the isoplanatic patch. Thus, the various laser-assisted tomographic AO concepts are presented with examples of each realization as for the laser tomography AO, the multi-conjugate AO and the multi-object AO. Finally, the challenges of the new generation of giant telescopes are discussed at the end of the paper with a particular focus on the European Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) project.

L’optique adaptative (OA), installée aujourd’hui sur tous les très grands télescopes astronomiques, permet de s’affranchir de la limitation en résolution angulaire imposée aux grands télescopes au sol par les perturbations de la turbulence atmosphérique. Cet article de revue présente l’état de l’art du domaine pour les applications astronomiques. Il donne les principes de l’OA et décrit ses composants principaux que sont les miroirs déformables, les analyseurs de surface d’onde et les algorithmes de commande. L’article présente aussi les principales réalisations récentes et les projets en cours. D’abord pour l’imagerie directe des planètes extrasolaires par OA extrême et coronographie, en prenant comme exemple l’instrument SPHERE. Ensuite pour résoudre par étoile guide laser la problématique de la couverture du ciel trop faible et étendre la correction de l’OA au-delà du domaine isoplanétique. Ainsi les systèmes d’OA tomographiques assistées par laser sont présentés avec à chaque fois des exemples de réalisation comme pour l’OA à tomographie laser, l’OA multiconjuguée et l’OA multi-objet. Enfin les défis des télescopes géants, dits extrêmes, sont abordés en fin d’article avec un focus particulier sur le projet européen de l’Extremely Large Telescope (ELT).

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DOI: 10.5802/crphys.111
Mot clés : turbulence atmosphérique, imagerie, optique adaptative, analyse de surface d’onde, tomographie, étoile laser, miroir déformable
Keywords: atmospheric turbulence, imaging, adaptive optics, wavefront sensing, tomography, laser guide star, deformable mirror
Gérard Rousset 1; Thierry Fusco 2, 3

1 LESIA, Université Paris Cité, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, Sorbonne Université, CNRS, F-92190 Meudon, France
2 DOTA, ONERA, Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), Palaiseau, France
3 Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, CNES, LAM, Marseille, France
License: CC-BY 4.0
Copyrights: The authors retain unrestricted copyrights and publishing rights
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Gérard Rousset; Thierry Fusco. Optique adaptative  : correction des effets de la turbulence atmosphérique sur les images astronomiques. Comptes Rendus. Physique, Volume 23 (2022) no. S1, pp. 293-344. doi : 10.5802/crphys.111. https://comptes-rendus.academie-sciences.fr/physique/articles/10.5802/crphys.111/

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