Outline
Comptes Rendus

Ecology / Écologie
A comparative account of backwater and brackish water marine mycoflora of North Malabar (Kerala) India
Comptes Rendus. Biologies, Volume 331 (2008) no. 4, pp. 294-297.

Abstract

The backwater system of Kerala is well known. In the present investigation, we have tried to explore the marine fungal diversity of selected backwater and brackish water habitats of the North Malabar region of Kerala, India. A total of 30 marine fungi were isolated, which include 19 Ascomycetes, 1 Basidiomycete, and 10 Mitosporic fungi. Periconia prolifica emerged as the most dominant one in terms of percent frequency of occurrence and percent relative abundance.

Metadata
Received:
Accepted:
Published online:
DOI: 10.1016/j.crvi.2008.01.007
Keywords: Backwater system, Marine fungi, Biodegradation, Percent frequency of occurrence, Percent relative abundance

Gayatri R. Nambiar 1; Cheruth Abdul Jaleel 1; Kalathil Raveendran 1

1 Department of P.G. Studies and Research in Botany, Sir Syed College, Taliparamba, Kerala, India
@article{CRBIOL_2008__331_4_294_0,
     author = {Gayatri R. Nambiar and Cheruth Abdul Jaleel and Kalathil Raveendran},
     title = {A comparative account of backwater and brackish water marine mycoflora of {North} {Malabar} {(Kerala)} {India}},
     journal = {Comptes Rendus. Biologies},
     pages = {294--297},
     publisher = {Elsevier},
     volume = {331},
     number = {4},
     year = {2008},
     doi = {10.1016/j.crvi.2008.01.007},
     language = {en},
}
TY  - JOUR
AU  - Gayatri R. Nambiar
AU  - Cheruth Abdul Jaleel
AU  - Kalathil Raveendran
TI  - A comparative account of backwater and brackish water marine mycoflora of North Malabar (Kerala) India
JO  - Comptes Rendus. Biologies
PY  - 2008
SP  - 294
EP  - 297
VL  - 331
IS  - 4
PB  - Elsevier
DO  - 10.1016/j.crvi.2008.01.007
LA  - en
ID  - CRBIOL_2008__331_4_294_0
ER  - 
%0 Journal Article
%A Gayatri R. Nambiar
%A Cheruth Abdul Jaleel
%A Kalathil Raveendran
%T A comparative account of backwater and brackish water marine mycoflora of North Malabar (Kerala) India
%J Comptes Rendus. Biologies
%D 2008
%P 294-297
%V 331
%N 4
%I Elsevier
%R 10.1016/j.crvi.2008.01.007
%G en
%F CRBIOL_2008__331_4_294_0
Gayatri R. Nambiar; Cheruth Abdul Jaleel; Kalathil Raveendran. A comparative account of backwater and brackish water marine mycoflora of North Malabar (Kerala) India. Comptes Rendus. Biologies, Volume 331 (2008) no. 4, pp. 294-297. doi : 10.1016/j.crvi.2008.01.007. https://comptes-rendus.academie-sciences.fr/biologies/articles/10.1016/j.crvi.2008.01.007/

Version originale du texte intégral

1 Introduction

A chain of backwater systems connects the southwestern coast of India, bordering the state of Kerala. The backwater system is the largest and the most important inland water resource of Kerala. The backwater system consisting of the estuaries of the rivers, the lower reaches within the tidal influx, the brackish water lakes and backwater along with their estuaries comprises about 68% of the inland water resources of the state. Sharing the characteristics of both freshwater and marine habitats makes the backwater system a unique ecosystem. The backwater of Kerala, sprawling the entire coastal length of Kerala, is rich in biodiversity of fauna and flora [1].

The biodegradation of the dead remains of plants and animals in the backwater system is carried out by an immense variety of microorganisms. Marine fungi are one such microbiota, which play a crucial role in the breakdown of organic matter and transfer the energy to the higher trophic level. The present paper deals with the marine fungal diversity of selected backwater and brackish water of the Kerala. Although there are earlier reports [2–8] about the marine mycology in the Kerala coast, it is not so exclusive with the coastal regions; therefore, in the present investigation, we have tried to explore the marine fungal diversity of selected backwater and brackish water habitats of the North Malabar region of Kerala, India.

2 Materials and methods

Wood materials were collected from the Nadal and Katampally brackish water and Kavvai and Chettuva backwater systems of North Malabar (Kerala) India. A total of 197 wood samples were collected (93 from backwater and 104 from brackish water). The collected decaying wood materials, of sizes in the range 8–12 cm × 1–1.5 cm, were thoroughly washed and transferred into a sterile polythene bag. Preliminary screening for marine fungi was carried out within a weak. The wood samples were incubated at room temperature in the laboratory. Periodical isolation of the wood materials was carried out for six months. The fungi thus isolated were tabulated and recorded (Table 1).

Table 1

List of marine fungi isolated

Name of marine fungi Backwater Brackish water
FO RA FO RA
Aigialus grandis Kohlm. et Schatz 4.67 3.23
Aigialus mangrovei Borse 2.20 1.98
Aigialus parvus Schatz et Kohlm. 1.10 0.99
Aniptodera chesapeakensis Shearer et Mill 12.50 8.60
Aniptodera salsuginosa Nakagiri et Ito 4.40 3.96
Dactylospora haliotrepha (Kohlm. et Kohlm) Hafellner 3.30 2.97
Halosarpheia abonnis Kohlm. 2.20 1.98
Halosarpehia ratnagiriensis Patil et Borse 3.13 2.15
Halosarpheia viscosa (I. Schmidt) Shearer et Crane ex Kohlm et Volkm. Kohlm, comb nov. 3.30 2.97
Leptosphaeria australiensis (Cribb et Cribb) Hughes 4.67 3.23 4.40 3.96
Lignincola longirostris (Cribb et Cribb) Kohlm. 6.60 5.94
Lignincola tropica Kohlm. 6.25 4.30
Lulworthia grandispora Meyers 7.70 6.93
Marinosphaera mangrovei Hyde 4.67 3.23
Pleospora pelagica Johnson 6.25 4.30
Savoryella lignicola Jones et Eaton 10.94 7.53 8.80 7.92
Savoryella paucispora Cribb et Cribb) Koch. 9.38 6.45 7.70 6.93
Salsuginea ramicola Hyde 7.81 5.38 5.50 4.95
Verruculina enalia (Kohlm.) Kohlm. et Volkm. Kohlm. 12.5 8.60 8.80 7.92
Halocyphina villosa Kohlm. 9.38 6.45 5.50 4.95
Ascochyta sp. 1.56 1.05
Cirrenalia macrocephala (Kohlm) Meyers et Moore 2.20 1.98
Cirrenalia pygmea Kohlm. 7.81 5.38 6.60 5.94
Clavatospora bulbosa (Anast) Nakagiri et Tubaki 10.94 7.53
Cumulospora marina I. Schmidt 6.25 4.30
Dendryphiella salina (Sutherland) Pugh et Nicot 3.13 2.15 4.40 3.96
Periconia prolifica Anastasiou 14.06 9.68 12.09 10.89
Phoma sp. 3.13 2.15
Trichocladium achrasporum (Meyers et Moore) Dixon 6.25 4.30 7.70 6.93
Trichocladium alopallonellum (Meyers et Moore) Kohlm. et Volkm. Kohlm. 6.60 5.94

3 Results and discussion

Altogether 30 marine fungi were isolated during the course of this study (Figs. 1, 2). Among these, 19 were ascomycetes, one was a basidiomycete, and 10 were mitosporic fungi. Twenty marine fungi were obtained from brackish waters, and twenty others from backwaters. Maximum ascomycetes (up to 13) were obtained from brackish water. More mitosporic fungal diversity was found in backwater. Basidiomycete was represented only by a single isolate from each water body. Ten species that were found common in both water bodies include Leptosphaeria australiensis, Savoryella lignicola, Savoryella paucispora, Salsuginea ramicola, Verruculina enalia, Halocyphina villosa, Cirrenalia pygmea, Dendryphiella salina, Periconia prolifica, and Trichocladium achrasporum.

Fig. 1

Isolated backwater and brackish water marine mycoflora of North Malabar (Kerala) India.

Fig. 2

Isolated backwater and brackish water marine mycoflora of North Malabar (Kerala) India.

Periconia prolifica showed maximum percent frequency of occurrence and percent relative abundance from backwater as well as from brackish water. Percent frequency of abundance above 8 was shown by seven and three species from backwater and brackish water, respectively. Three and five species from brackish water and backwater, respectively, showed percent relative abundance above 7. Aigialus parvus and Ascochyta sp. were the species that were represented by an only single isolate each.

In terms of overall percent frequency and percent relative abundance, backwater mycoflora emerged dominant with respect to brackish water mycoflora. This might be due to various environment conditions like salinity fluctuation, availability of host, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, etc., which support the distribution of marine fungi.

Acknowledgements

The authors are thankful to the Principal and Management of Sir Syed College, Taliparamba, for providing facilities. One of the authors (G.R.N.) is grateful to K.S.C.S.T.E. for providing financial support.


References

[1] C.T. Sukumaran Estuarine environment in relation to anthropogenic disturbance with special reference to Kerala (N.B. Nair, ed.), Proc. National Seminar on Estuarine Management, STEC, Kerala, 1987, pp. 152-155

[2] G. Becker; K. Kohlmeyer Deterioration of wood by marine fungi and its special significance for fishing crafts, J. Timber Dryers Preserv. Assoc. India, Volume 4 (1958), pp. 1-10

[3] J. Kohlmeyer; I. Schmidt; M. Nair Eine neue Corollospora (Ascomycetes) under Indischen ocean und der Ostsee, Ber. Dtsch. Bot. Ges., Volume 80 (1967), pp. 98-102

[4] N. Prabhakaran; R. Gupta; M. Krishnankutty Fungal activity in Mangalvan: An estuarine mangrove ecosystem (N.B. Nair, ed.), Proc. National Seminar on Estuarine Management, STEC, Kerala, 1987, pp. 458-463

[5] G.L. Maria; K.R. Sridhar Richness and diversity of filamentous fungi on wood litter of mangroves along the west coast of India, Curr. Sci., Volume 83 (2002), pp. 1573-1580

[6] K. Prasannarai; K.R. Sridhar Diversity and abundance of higher marine fungi on woody substrates along the west coast of India, Curr. Sci., Volume 81 (2001), pp. 304-311

[7] K. Prasannarai; K.R. Sridhar Fungal assemblage and diversity on periodically sampled intetidal woody litter, Indian J. Mar. Sci., Volume 32 (2003), pp. 329-333

[8] K. Raveendran, P. Manimohan, Marine fungi of Kerala, in: A Preliminary Floristic and Ecological Study of Malabar Natural History Society, Calicut, Kerala, India, 2007, pp. 10–15


Comments - Policy