Comptes Rendus
Frequency ratios of Sr, Yb, and Hg based optical lattice clocks and their applications
Comptes Rendus. Physique, Volume 16 (2015) no. 5, pp. 489-498.

This article describes the recent progress of optical lattice clocks with neutral strontium (87Sr), ytterbium (171Yb) and mercury (199Hg) atoms. In particular, we present frequency comparison between the clocks locally via an optical frequency comb and between two Sr clocks at remote sites using a phase-stabilized fibre link. We first review cryogenic Sr optical lattice clocks that reduce the room-temperature blackbody radiation shift by two orders of magnitude and serve as a reference in the following clock comparisons. Similar physical properties of Sr and Yb atoms, such as transition wavelengths and vapour pressure, have allowed our development of a compatible clock for both species. A cryogenic Yb clock is evaluated by referencing a Sr clock. We also report on an Hg clock, which shows one order of magnitude less sensitivity to blackbody radiation, while its large nuclear charge makes the clock sensitive to the variation of fine-structure constant. Connecting all three types of clocks by an optical frequency comb, the ratios of the clock frequencies are determined with uncertainties smaller than possible through absolute frequency measurements. Finally, we describe a synchronous frequency comparison between two Sr-based remote clocks over a distance of 15 km between RIKEN and the University of Tokyo, as a step towards relativistic geodesy.

Cet article décrit les progrès récents des horloges optiques à réseau avec des atomes neutres de strontium (87Sr), ytterbium (171Yb) et mercure (199Hg). Nous présentons en particulier une comparaison locale des fréquences entre des horloges en utilisant un peigne de fréquences et entre deux horloges à Sr distantes à l'aide d'un lien fibré stabilisé en phase. Nous commençons par une revue des horloges optiques à Sr cryogéniques qui réduisent le décalage de fréquence dû au corps noir à température ambiante de deux ordres de grandeur et servent de référence dans les comparaisons d'horloges qui sont décrites ensuite. Les propriétés physiques similaires du Sr et Yb, telles que les longueurs d'onde de transition et les pressions de vapeur saturante, nous ont permis de développer une horloge compatible avec les deux espèces. Une horloge à Yb cryogénique est évaluée par référence à une horloge à Sr cryogénique. Nous décrivons aussi une horloge à mercure qui présente une sensibilité au rayonnement du corps noir à température ambiante dix fois plus faible, alliée à une charge nucléaire élevée qui rend l'horloge sensible aux variations de la constante de structure fine. En connectant les trois types d'horloges avec un peigne de fréquences optiques, les rapports de fréquences sont mesurés avec des incertitudes plus faibles que ce qui est possible avec des mesures de fréquences absolues. Finalement, nous décrivons une comparaison de fréquence synchrone entre deux horloges à Sr distantes de 15 km entre RIKEN et l'université de Tokyo, une étape vers la géodésie relativiste.

Published online:
DOI: 10.1016/j.crhy.2015.04.003
Keywords: Time and frequency metrology, Atomic clock, Optical lattice clock, Constancy of fundamental constants, Relativistic geodesy
Mot clés : Métrologie du temps et des fréquences, Horloge atomique, Horloge optique à réseau, Stabilité des constantes fondamentales, Géodésie relativiste

Masao Takamoto 1, 2, 3; Ichiro Ushijima 1, 2, 3; Manoj Das 1, 2, 3; Nils Nemitz 1; Takuya Ohkubo 1, 3, 4; Kazuhiro Yamanaka 1, 3, 4; Noriaki Ohmae 1, 3, 4; Tetsushi Takano 3, 4; Tomoya Akatsuka 1, 2, 3; Atsushi Yamaguchi 1, 2, 3; Hidetoshi Katori 1, 2, 3, 4

1 Quantum Metrology Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan
2 RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan
3 Innovative Space-Time Project, ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan
4 Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan
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     title = {Frequency ratios of {Sr,} {Yb,} and {Hg} based optical lattice clocks and their applications},
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Masao Takamoto; Ichiro Ushijima; Manoj Das; Nils Nemitz; Takuya Ohkubo; Kazuhiro Yamanaka; Noriaki Ohmae; Tetsushi Takano; Tomoya Akatsuka; Atsushi Yamaguchi; Hidetoshi Katori. Frequency ratios of Sr, Yb, and Hg based optical lattice clocks and their applications. Comptes Rendus. Physique, Volume 16 (2015) no. 5, pp. 489-498. doi : 10.1016/j.crhy.2015.04.003. https://comptes-rendus.academie-sciences.fr/physique/articles/10.1016/j.crhy.2015.04.003/

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