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Comptes Rendus. Physique
Measuring graphene’s Berry phase at B=0 T
Comptes Rendus. Physique, Volume 22 (2021) no. S4, pp. 133-143.

Part of the special issue: Recent advances in 2D material physics

The Berry phase of wave functions is a key quantity to understand various low-energy properties of matter, among which electric polarisation, orbital magnetism, as well as topological and ultra-relativistic phenomena. Standard approaches to probe the Berry phase in solids rely on the electron dynamics in response to electromagnetic forces. In graphene, probing the Berry phase π of the massless relativistic electrons requires an external magnetic field. Here, we show that the Berry phase also affects the static response of the electrons to a single atomic scatterer, through wavefront dislocations in the surrounding standing-wave interference. This provides a new experimental method to measure the graphene Berry phase in the absence of any magnetic field and demonstrates that local disorder can be exploited as probe of topological quantum matter in scanning tunnelling microscopy experiments.

Les interférences de quasiparticules observées par microscopie à effet tunnel sont particulièrement utiles pour étudier les propriétés électroniques de matériaux en surfaces. Ces interférences possèdent des informations sur la surface de Fermi du système et leur résolution en énergie permet, dans certains cas, de reconstruire la relation dispersion. Nous montrons ici que les images d’interférences de quasiparticules peuvent aussi contenir une information sur la phase de Berry qui caractérise la structure de bande du matériau. La phase de Berry est une phase géométrique que les fonctions d’onde electroniques acquièrent lors d’une évolution cyclique dans un espace de paramètres. Elle est quantifiée lorsque la trajectoire de l’évolution ensèrre une singularité des fonctions d’onde. Il s’agit alors d’une propriété topologique de la structure de bande. La phase de Berry dans les solides est traditionnellement mesurée en appliquant des champs électromagnétiques pour forcer les particules à former de trajectoires fermées. L’utilisation de la figure d’interférence de quasiparticules permet de s’extraire de ce paradigme car la phase de Berry peut affecter la réponse statique des électrons au désordre en l’absence de champ électromagnétique.

Online First:
Published online:
DOI: 10.5802/crphys.79
Keywords: Berry phase, Graphene, STM, Wavefront dislocations, Topology, Atomic defect
Clément Dutreix 1; Hector González-Herrero 2, 3; Ivan Brihuega 2, 3, 4; Mikhail I. Katsnelson 5; Claude Chapelier 6; Vincent T. Renard 6

1 Université de Bordeaux, France and CNRS, LOMA, UMR 5798, Talence, F-33400, France
2 Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid, Spain
3 Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid, Spain
4 Instituto Nicolás Cabrera, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid, Spain
5 Radboud University, Institute for Molecules and Materials, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
6 Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CEA, Grenoble INP, IRIG, PHELIQS, F-38000 Grenoble, France
License: CC-BY 4.0
Copyrights: The authors retain unrestricted copyrights and publishing rights
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     title = {Measuring graphene{\textquoteright}s {Berry} phase at $B=0${~T}},
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Clément Dutreix; Hector González-Herrero; Ivan Brihuega; Mikhail I. Katsnelson; Claude Chapelier; Vincent T. Renard. Measuring graphene’s Berry phase at $B=0$ T. Comptes Rendus. Physique, Volume 22 (2021) no. S4, pp. 133-143. doi : 10.5802/crphys.79. https://comptes-rendus.academie-sciences.fr/physique/articles/10.5802/crphys.79/

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